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Still, at other times, you may want part of a cell reference to change - such as the column letter - while having the row number stay static - or vice versa when a formula is copied.
This is when a mixed cell reference is used (=$A2 A).
At times, though cell references need to stay static when formulas are copied.
To do this, an absolute reference ( =$A $A) is used which does not change when copied.
For example, if the formula= A2 A4was copied from cell B2 to B3, the references would change so that the formula would be:= A3 A5Their name comes from the fact that they change relative to their location when copied.
This is usually a good thing and it is why relative cell references are the default type of reference used in formulas.
Similarly, when data located in a different workbook is referenced, the name of the workbook and the worksheet are included in the reference along with the cell location.
Cell references uses are not restricted to the same worksheet where the data is located. When this occurs, the name of the worksheet is included as shown in the formula in row 3 in the image above which includes a reference to cell A2 on Sheet 2 of the same workbook.
When listing a cell reference, the column letter is always listed first Cell references are used in formulas, functions, charts, and other Excel commands.
One advantage to using cell references in spreadsheet formulas is that, normally, if the data located in the referenced cells changes, the formula or chart automatically updates to reflect the change.
Whichever part of the reference has a dollar sign attached to it stays static, while the other part changes when copied.
So for $A2, when it is copied, the column letter will always be A, but the row numbers will change to $A3, $A4, $A5, and so on.